when to travel to egypt

Peak travel season in Egypt runs from mid October to May, and this is the best time to visit. As you will notice, the tourist season is during winter and spring, but this is also the high season, and prices go up at this time of year. Some hotels can be really expensive, and because of this, I would advise prior reservations for all hotels before you come, even the budget hotels.

From May until October, the temperatures are fairly high, especially in Luxor and the southern parts of the country, yet summer offers a time to see Egypt in relative peace and quite. It is a huge advantage being able to see the tourist sites without hassle from school children, or from the crowds of tourists. Imagine, piece and quiet to take photographs, without strangers obscuring the view!

Although certain Cairo hotels will fill up with many Arab visitors in the summer, who would rather be here than having to endure even hotter weather in their own countries, advanced bookings are rarely required, and a variety of discounts are even offered, as incentives to them who would brave the heat.

Another very good time to visit Egypt is during the springtime. During spring the weather is fairly moderate, but try and avoid the “The Khamsin wind1” season that runs between March and April, though it only takes a few days and you can handle that so easily ... it is quite an adventure! !!
The Khamsin wind is a warm wind that blows in from the desert, carrying sand and dust!

Some travellers will avoid travelling to Egypt during Ramadan. This is mainly due to the fact that alcohol is not allowed during the month, especially during the daytime! But another reason could be that many of the restaurants are closed during Ramadan, and all tourist sites close one or two hours earlier than usual, causing a shorter time for visiting.
But on the other hand Ramadan is a lovely month in Egypt, as it resembles a month-long festival. At night all coffee shops are full of people who will stay up till the early morning hours. It is the time when Cairo (and the rest of Egypt) never sleeps, the time when all people go out to have fun.
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Luxor Temple

Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 BC.
Known in the Egyptian language as ipet resyt, or "the southern harem", the temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of Amun, Mut, and Chons and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple (ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility – whence its name.

Islamic Ceramic Museum

The Museum of Islamic Ceramics in Zamalek occupies the ground and first floors in the palace of Prince Amr Ibrahim, which combines all prevailing styles of the Mohamed Ali Dynasty in its architectural and decorative style. These styles were influenced by the classical European style on the one hand and the Moroccan, Turkish, and Andalusian styles, in captivating harmony, on the other. The Museum is comprised of a group of grand halls with the main one in the middle. This main hall has a central fountain and is covered with a splendid dome rising above ridges at the corners. The hall contains a great variety of plaster-framed stained glass works. The Palace is generally used as the Al-Gezira Art Center and the Museum houses a great collection of ceramics from the different Islamic periods. The most important of these is the collection of 74 pieces exhibited in the Fatimid Hall, with the exception of a single piece from the Abbasid period. Equally important are the halls containing the Turkish collection of 96 objects and the Egyptian collection of 39 Umayyad, Ayyubid, Mamluk, and Ottoman pieces. The gallery contains the Syrian collection, while the Persian Collection Hall is situated on the upper floor. It contains Persian ceramics, as well as two recesses containing two Andalusian pieces, two Tunisian tiles, and two Iraqi bowls.

Egyptian Museum

The present Egyptian Museum was designed in 1896 by the French Architect Marcel Dourgnon in the neo-classic style that suits the ancient and classical monuments, but does not compete with the still standing ancient Egyptian architecture. The inside galleries are spacious and the walls are high. Natural light comes from the diffused glass panels on the ceiling and from the windows of the first floor. The middle atrium is the highest part of the museum where the monuments were installed as in ancient Egyptian temples. The T-shaped plan of the building took into consideration any future enlargement and met the requirements of an easy flow of visitors from one gallery to another. The artifacts are distributed in two main floors. The lower one contains the heavy monuments such as stone sarcophagi, statues, stelae, and wall reliefs. The upper floor contains the thematic exhibits: manuscripts, statues of deities, royal mummies, objects of daily life, mummy portraits, unfinished sculptures, Greco-Roman statuettes and vases, and artifacts of the afterlife, among others.
The museum Established interest in Egyptian antiquities 15/8/1835 and held the first museum of Egyptian antiquities conservation in Cairo in a small building in the garden Alazbugeh then moved to the citadel of Saladin, then calmed down cheeks Abbas to the Crown Prince of Austria in 1855.It established in 1858 "Mareb" The director of the interests of another small museum on the beach of the Nile in Boulaq then moved again to the Giza in 1891. Work began in the current museum was inaugurated in 1897 in 15/11/1902 in the cheek "Abbas Hilmi II," was designed museum building engineer Frenchman Marcel role of N-style classic updated and reinforced concrete used for the first time in construction in Egypt. The composition of the museum: Two-storey main contact and takes into account the halls easy passage, there is currently approximately Museum: 160 thousand impact of various ages. Presents in the basement where there are large stone order, starting with a historic entrance and left as clockwise, we find there are some of the effects before the era of dynasties and the early dynasties and the effects of old age of State and the State Central and modern state and then the late era Greco-Roman era. The upper floor offers which sets the quality of manuscripts and statues of gods and Anwar ownership and wooden coffins, jewellery and packages from one cemetery such as the effects of Tutankhamen and the effects Thuita Bossuyt, and the effects of Tanis and the effects of the Valley of the Kings and the effects and consequences of sexually cemetery cemetery Amager Prix .. There are great museum library includes literature, history and the civilizations and religions, different languages and there is also a section for photography and some maps it easy for the visitor to follow the figures and rooms in the museum maps annexed to the top role.
Address: CAIRO - Tahrir Square - Salim Hassan Street Phone 5794596 -5796948 - 5796974
Prices of entry: The Egyptians have two pounds - for students and one Egyptian pounds and foreign students and residents of 10 pounds - for Egyptians in the holidays 1 pounds - 20 pounds for foreigners. Hall Anwar Egyptian Museum for foreign students and residents of 30 pounds Hall Anwar Egyptian Museum for foreigners 40 pounds

Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina Museum houses outstanding sculptures from various periods: Pharonic, Greek, Roman, Coptic and Islamic. These statues showcase the brilliance of Egyptian artists throughout history. Exhibiting the statues was an ingenious idea because it will give visitors to the library a sense of the past. The museum now houses 1079 objects that tell the story of Egypt from the predynastic through the Islamic periods. Papyri represent Greek and Latin literature and a number of sculptures and portrait heads depict the ancient philosophers and writers. Numerous items associated with trade and pottery pieces illuminate the daily lives of the people. Objects from recent underwater explorations in the city's ancient ports are also included in the new Alexandria Library Museum.

Youssef Idrees

With a unique style, a distinct way of presenting ideas and commitment to the cause, aspirations and concerns of his country, Dr Youssef Idrees is a glittering star in the realm of contemporary Arabic literature, both as a short story and novel writer, and playwright. He has left a rich legacy of writings, including novels, short stories, plays and essays. Idrees is considered a turning point in the history of Arabic short story and novel. Thanks to his contributions, the Arabic novel evolved from "pathetic" romanticism to realism. He was born on May 19, 1927. Throughout his school years, he was an intelligent, talented and distinguished student. He used to read stories, scientific and literary books where he got acquainted with major contemporary Arabic writers. He also read translations of foreign literature.
During his study at the Faculty of Medicine, he became more interested in literature, psychology, poetry and other arts such as music and painting. There, he started to write short stories. In his last year at the faculty, he participated in the students' demonstrations against British colonisation; he became the executive secretary of the committee defending students. He was engaged in clashes with the British soldiers.
While he practised medicine during the period from 1951 1960, he remained committed to the patriotic cause of his country and took part in the secret meetings of the liberation movement until the July, 1952 Revolution took place. He took part in editing "Al Tahrir", the first magazine published by the Army in September, 1952.
Idrees's early short stories drew the attention of critics, many of whom foretold he would reach outstanding status especially after he wrote "The Strangers' Song" published in "Al Qissa" magazine in 1950.
Idrees' stories were published in "Rose Al-Yousef" magazine , then Abdel Rahman Al Khamisi introduced him to "Al Masri" newspaper.
His first collection "Cheapest Nights" was published in 1954, which contained short stories previously published in "Al Qissa" and "Rose Al-Yousef" magazines, and "Al Masri" newspaper. Then his writings began to be published in "Sabahel-Kheir" magazine . He was appointed as Editor in "Al Gomhouria" newspaper where he started his career as a journalist and a writer.
He was entrusted to write a book on the Suez War, to be translated into English, and another book on the National Union. He made a successful debut in the theatre when he wrote his one-act play entitled "Farahat's Republic".
In 1973, he was appointed as writer in Al-Ahram newspaper. In his late years, he had a special interest in writing articles as he used to write weekly articles which were published in Al-Ahram every Monday. These essays, published under the heading "From My Diary", with their rich and daring subjects and elaborate style, constituted another form of Idrees' writings.
Idrees's literary works were the subject of about 95 Ph.D. theses in and outside Egypt. In foreign universities, these works were subject to more than 22 studies. For example, the Spanish researcher Pilar Liro El Elegado made her Ph.D. on "The Dramatic World of Youssef Idrees". Owing to the significance of this Ph.D., it was printed and published in a book by the Egyptian Institute for Islamic Studies. It was discussed in a seminar in Taha Hussein's Hall at the Institute, attended by some of the Egyptian and Spanish university professors and orientalists.
- Order of Algerian Militants in 1961, in recognition of his contribution to the independence of Algeria. - Order of the Republic in 1963. - The annual prize in 1965 from "Hewar", a Lebanese magazine, which is dedicated every year to eminent writers in the Arab world. Yet, he declined to take the prize.
In 1970, he was unanimously elected a Director-General of the Society of Drama writers.
Works of Youssef Idrees
Idrees wrote 12 collections of short stories, eight plays, six novels, 11 books containing his essays. Besides, he wrote on childhood, its innocent world and awareness of the surrounding reality. He took part in most of political, literary and intellectual seminars organised at his time. He also co-authored some books.
Short story collections include:
"Cheapest Nights", "Love Story", "Isn't It?" , "The Hero", "Too Far", " An Accident of Honour", "Al Naddaha", "A House Made of Flesh" .
Plays: "Farahat Republic", "King of Cotton", "Critical Moment", "Al Farafeer" ( common people), "The Earthly Farce", "The Stripped", "The Third Sex", "Towards an Arabic Theatre".
Novels: "The Prohibited", "The Wrong", "Men and Bulls", "The Black Soldier", "The White"
Reflections: "Limited Frankness", "The Discovery of a Continent", "Dr.Youssef Idrees's Diary," in three parts.
Stories for children: "Right", "A Look", "Is It a plaything?" , "Play" and the "Grey Triangle".

Naguib Mahfouz

Born in 1911, Mahfouz is the grand old man of Arabic fiction, enjoying the affection and reverence of both critics and a vast readership.
His first novel was published in 1939 and since that date he has written thirty-two novels and thirteen collections of short stories. In his old age, he has maintained his prolific output, producing a novel every year.
The novel genre, which can be traced back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe, has no prototypes in classical Arabic literature. Although this abounded in all kinds of narrative, none of them could be described as we understand the term "novel" today. Arab scholars usually attribute the first serious attempt of writing a novel in Arabic to the Egyptian author Muhammad Hussein Haykal. The novel, called "Zaynab" after the name of its heroine, and published in 1913, told in highly romanticized terms the story of a peasant girl, victim of social conventions. Soon after, writers like Taha Hussein, Abbas Al-Aqqad, Ibrahim Al-Mazini and Tawfiq Al-Hakim were to venture into the unknown realm of fiction.
The Arabic novel, however, was to wait for another generation for the advent of the man who was to make it his sole mission. Mahfouz, who was born to a middle-class family in one of the oldest quarters in Cairo, was to give expression in powerful metaphors, over a period of half a century, to the hopes and frustrations of his nation. Readers have so often identified themselves with his work, a great deal of which has been adapted for the cinema, theater and television, that many of his characters become household names in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab world. On the other hand, his work, though deeply steeped in local reality, appeals to universal and permanent part in human nature. In English and other languages, since the appearance in 1966 of his first translated novel Midag Alley, he has been widely read.
That Mahfouz has always been a socially committed writer with a deep concern for the problem of social injustice is an incontestable fact. To him, individual morality is inseparable from social morality. In other words, according to Mahfouz's moral code, those who only seek their own individual salvation are damned; to him nirvana is, as it were, a distinctly collective state. On the other hand, characters who are saved in Mahfouz's work are only those with altruistic motives, those who show concern for others and demonstrate a kind of awareness of their particular predicament being part of a more general one.
How he pictures the world
The picture of the world as it emerges from the bulk of Mahfouz's work is very gloomy indeed, though not completely despondent. It shows that the author's social utopia is far from being realized. Mahfouz seems to conceive time as a metaphysical force of oppression. His novels have consistently shown time as the bringer of change, and change as a very painful process, and very often time is not content until it has dealt his heroes the final blow of death. To sum up, in Mahfouz's dark tapestry of the world there are only two bright spots, man's continuing struggle for equality on one hand, and the promise of scientific progress on the other.

Abdel-Rahman al-Sharqawi

Abdel-Rahman Al-Sharqawi was a leading multi-talented intellectual. During the late forties, he was one of the leading pioneers of the innovative movement in Arabic poetry, as well as a major exponent of the social realistic trend in literary criticism. In poetry, he was a pioneer of a new trend of Arabic poetry. He also introduced a totally new social, moral, ideological and critical approach to biographies of major Islamic figures.
Above all, Al-Sharqawi was a prominent press writer and political activist, mainly involved in the defence of democracy, social justice, religious tolerance and true faith. Born in a village in Menoufia governorate, he graduated in the Faculty of Law in 1943.
When Al-Sharqawi composed his long poem "Message of an Egyptian Father to President Truman" in 1951, leaders of poetry had not realised that a total revolution in Arabic poetry had been in the making. This epic poem with its political and emotional content had a far-reaching impact on the modern Arabic poetry, not only in terms of its vibrating and fluctuating rhythm, but also its structure and texture as well as the poet's concerns.
Al-Sharqawi's first novel "The Earth", published in book form in 1954 (after being serialized in 'Al Masri" daily during 1953), had a similar resounding impact. The novel was the first embodiment of literary "Realism" and a departure from Al-Hakeem's symbolism reflected in "Restoration of the Soul" and "Journals of a Prosecutor in the Countryside". The novel expressed the social struggle between feudalism and Egyptian peasants prior to the 1952 Revolution.
Al-Sharqawi's pioneering role further extended to poetic drama, when he first wrote his premiere poetic play "Tragedy of Jamila" in 1962, highlighting the struggle of the Algerian nationalist heroine against French occupation. The artistic merit of the play rested not only on its being the first drama in modern poetry, but also on its epic-like semi-narrative style. However, Al-Sharqawi's epic style tended towards popular folkloric biographies of ancient Arab heroes such as Antara , the most renowned Arab knight-poet. The play had a strong stimulating effect on the dramatic movement in Egypt and Arab countries, looking forward for a special nationalist dramatic (norm).
His outstanding book "Muhammad: the Messenger of Freedom", published in 1962, was also a real breakthrough in writing biographies of Muslim leaders. In this book as well his other published works on the lives of the well-guided Caliphs (Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali) and major leaders of jurisprudence and Sunna, he was not concerned with detailed account of their biographies. He was, rather, interested in those incidents and works that expressed the values of freedom, justice, reasoning, tolerance and indivisible association between faith and knowledge rather than ignorance.
Al-Sharqawi often contributed to leftist publications, although he has never joined any leftist organisation. His tendencies were rather nationalist and purely democratic. In the press he was once Chairman of the Board of Directors and Editor-in Chief of the famous Egyptian Rose El Youssef magazine.
He also occupied important positions at the Secretariat of the Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organization and the Supreme Council of Arts and Letters (now: the Supreme Council of Culture)
* State Merit Prize for Literature (1974) * The Order of Letters and Arts of the First Class
Major Works
"Al- Hussein, a Revolutionary and Martyr", "Red Eagle, Orabi, Leader of Peasants," "Muhammad: the Messenger of Freedom", "Al- Farouq Omar", "Ali, Leader of the Pious", "Al- Saddeeq, the First Caliph", among others.

Abdel-Rahman al-Raf'ee

Abdel Rahman al-Raf'ee is known as the historian of modern Egypt. His writings have been highly influential on modern Egyptian historical thought. Although he was also a prominent lawyer, member of the Parliament and minister, al-Raf'ee was best known as a historian.
Birth and Education :
Born in Cairo on February 8, 1889, he received his primary and secondary education mostly in Alexandria. In 1908, he graduated from the Faculty of Law. As a student of law, he used to call frequently on al-Liwaa newspaper, where he came in contact with nationalist leader Mustafa Kamel.
Al-Raf'ee worked as a lawyer for a short time, but soon abandoned the profession for journalism. He joined al-Liwaa newspaper as an editor,in association with nationalist leader Mohammad Fareed who succeeded Mustafa Kamel as Editor-in-Chief.
He cooperated with the National Party's young members in establishing night schools, and providing free education to the poor and working class.
• In 1911, he accompanied Muhammad Fareed in a European tour.
• In 1915, he was detained for one year on account of his political memoirs, which were found by the police.
• In 1919, he joined a number of nationalists in a campaign to popularise agricultural trade unions. He was also involved in the 1919 Revolution.
• In 1924, he was elected a member of the Parliament representing the opposition National Party, and lost his parliamentary seat in 1926.
• In 1932, he was appointed Secretary to the National Party.
• In 1949, he was appointed Minister of Supply.
• He warmly welcomed and supported the July 23,1952 Revolution.
• He was appointed Head of the Egyptian Bar Association in 1954.
• In 1958, he was re-elected member of the Supreme Council of Arts, Letters and Social Sciences. • He was awarded the State Prize of Merit for Social Sciences in 1961.
Al-Raf'ee's writings covered almost all stages of Egypt's modern history as follows:
• History of the National Movement and Evolution of the Governmental System in Egypt (two volumes).
• The Age of Mohammad Ali.
• The Age of Ismail (two volumes).
• Orabi Revolution and British Occupation.
• Egypt and Sudan during the Early Years of Occupation.
• Mustafa Kamel: Motive Force of National Movement.
• Mohammad Fareed: A Symbol of Sacrifice.
• The 1919 Revolution (two volumes).
• In the Wake of the Egyptian Revolution (three volumes).
• Preludes to the July 23, 1952 Revolution.
• The July 23, 1952 Revolution: Egypt's National History in Seven Years.
• Revolutionary Leader: Ahmad Orabi.
• Gamal Eddin al-Afghani.
• Egypt's Struggle in Modern Times.
• My Diary (1889 - 1951).
• Fourteen Years in Parliament.
• Poets of Patriotism in Egypt.
• Analysis of the 1936 Treaty.

Kamel Keilany (1897-1959)

Kamel Keilany was an eminent figure of modern Arabic literature whose marvellous works left a mark inthe literary history genuinely qualifying him to be "the pioneer of child literature".
Childhood and Education
Kamel Keilany was born in Al-Kala'a district, a popular quarter of Cairo, near Muqu'tam Mountain; and growing up in such ambience redolent of legends and songs, he was accustomed to an early solitude, which gave him the opportunity to read, assimilate and memorize more than 20 thousands of elite verses of Arabic poetry. Keilany also memorized the Holy Qu'ran at the Kuttab (the pre school religious classes).
Keilany later joined the primary and then secondary education to finally obtain the high school certificate. He immersed himself in studying English literature and memorizing English poetry; he likewise studied French.
Keilany then joined the old Egyptian University where he was distinguished. He planned to study Arabic, English and French literatures, and decided at the same time to join the school of Dante Alighioni to study Italian literature. He was the schoolmate of prominent Egyptian men of letters such as Drs. Zaki Mubarak, Abdel-Wahab Azzam, Hassan Ibrahim and others.
Professional Career:
He worked as teacher of English and translation in a preparatory school. Keilany then worked in the Ministry of Awqaf (Islamic endowments), to finally assume the post of "Secretary of the Higher AwqafCouncil in 1954.
Meanwhile, he worked in journalism and art. He assumed the post of "Chairman of Modern Actors' Club in 1918, then Editor-in-chief of El-Ragaa newspaper founded in 1922, later he became Secretary of the Arabic Liteature Society from 1922 to 1932.
Keilany: the man of letters:
Keilany was influenced by his uncle who fostered him while he was young. He was a rich source of tales and a good narrator. His uncle used to tell kamel, the child, an abundance of bedtime stories.
That was due to the glamour and splendour he found in foreign child stories, hence was his specific trend towards child literature. He wrote his first story of the kind, "Sindibad, the Sailor" in 1927. It wasfollowed by more than books.
By the outbreak of the Egyptian Revolution, Keilany composed new enthusiastic poetry, giving proof of his sincere patriotism.
Keilany's literary works
He made his first attempt in writing during his primary education in 1908. Later, he translated Andolusian literature and verified "Resalat El-Ghofran" or (Treatise on Forgiveness, written by the blind Arab poet Abu-al-Alaa AI-Maari). Some scholars assert that the Treatise on Forgive-ness influenced Dante in his composition of the Divine Comedy, and that many of its quatrains had a strong influence upon the poetry of Omar Khayyam. Keilany also explicated Ibn El-Roumi's poetry. Numerous books were published on different topics such as literature, religion, morals, grammar, criticism, comedy, the Prophet Mohammed (God's blessing and peace upon him) and his companions. Keilany also composed poetry, but he focused more on the pedagogics of children, he established a school for the literature of child tales.
Keilany faced all sorts of obstacles, but he could pave the way for the establishment of child literature; consequently he was honoured by the State and appreciated by writers and prominent figures of letters from Arab and Oriental countries.
Kamel Keilany died on Oct. 10, 1959, leaving behind a valuable heritage of publications on arabic literature in general and children's literature in particular.

Louis Awadh (1915-1990)

Dr. Louis Awadh is a prominent scholar, intellectual and literary critic. His far-reaching influence as a literary critic and dedicated scholar extended to the entire canvas of Egyptian and Arab cultural, literary and artistic scenes.
He was a genuine and exemplary intellectual who combined a firm belief in the freedom of man and the spirit of civilization and culture. He was deeply involved in the concerns of his own time, untiringly advocating new values, always associating education to the liberation of the intellect from the domination of superstitions and of man from oppression. His career was a series of literary debates, which always attracted lengthy literary controversies throughout his lifetime.
His writings were highly controversial and oftentimes going to extremes exceeding, in some cases red tape. During his career, he raised many controversial issues. For example, he advocated, during the forties the writing of poetry in colloquial Arabic and the discarding of traditional poetic rhythm.
During the fifties, he called for the principle of "literature for life". In association with his generation of critics and poets, such as Salah Abdel Sabour, he successfully established the "legitimacy of modern poetry".
Dr. Awadh was influenced by such interactive cultural elements that combined to give him a revolutionary inclination, manifesting itself into a constant pursuit of everything new and dissatisfaction with traditional and prevailing intellectual, cultural and creative values.
He had a firm belief in the "Unity of Culture in the World". According to him, it is easy to acquire a vocation, but it is difficult to adopt literature as a profession.
He also believed that practical criticism is the real criticism, thus making literary criticism available and integrating the cultural climate into the set-up of the community. Dr. Awadh was highly concerned with meticulous linguistic structure of his literary works. He was strictly committed to expressing himself in genuine classical Arabic in his own highly structured, elaborate style, although once he was an advocate of writing in colloquial. In all his writings, he was interested in issues related to ordinary people's life. His life span of 75 years was continuous series of independent intellectual work.
Dr. Louis Awadh was born in an Upper Egyptian village in Al Minya Governorate on January 5, 1915, to a middle class family.
He spent the first five years of his life in Sudan, where his father was employed. He was greatly influenced by his father, when a child, he started to use his father's large library, which mostly contained English books, dealing with Western thought in general.
When his family moved back to the city of Al Minya, he joined "Les Freres" School, then the primary school, where he completed his primary education in 1926.
In 1931, he completed his secondary education. In 1937, he was graduated and started his initial steps in the press. He contributed several articles on literary criticism in newspapers like Kawkab Al Sharq, Al Jihad, Al Wadi among others. He also co- edited Al Nahdha Al Fekria Magazine.
Dr. Awadh obtained his Ph.D at Cambridge University, England. When he was appointed lecturer at the Cairo University, Faculty of Arts, English Department, he was posed not merely as a university professor, but actually as an intellectual of a calibre, that is usually common during periods of transition where barriers between pure knowledge and real life virtually vanish.
His extremely liberal views caused many troubles to him; in 1954 he was discharged from the university and was imprisoned during the fifties on account of his political views. His political debates were more famous than his literary involvement. One of his most famous literary debates was that where he challenged the great Arabic linguist Mohmoud Shaker who could defeat Awadh, giving him a hard lesson on how to deal with literary text. The defeat was so severe that Awadh resigned his post as cultural advisor to Al Ahram Daily.
The resignation was, however rejceted by the then Editor-in-Chief of Al-Ahram: Mohammad Hasanien Haikal.
Dr. Louis Awadh made wide contributions in all aspects of litertary life. As a scholar, he was equally well-versed in both Arabic and Western literatures, with a deep insight into the relationship between the East and the West. He enriched the Arabic library with 50 books. Dr. Awadh will always be remembered as an untiring fighter intellectual and a source of construtive controversies.

Thirty mummies unearthed in Egypt

Mummies found in 4,300 year-old pharaonic tomb at Gisr al-Moudir, south of Cairo.
Egyptian archaeologists have discovered dozens of mummies and several stone and wood sarcophagi south of Cairo in a pharaonic tomb estimated to be 4,300 years old, the ministry of culture said on Monday.
The find was made at Gisr al-Moudir, west of Egypt's first ever pyramid at Saqqara, the step pyramid of Djoser built by architect Imhotep in around 2,700 BC, the ministry said in a statement.
"The tomb dates from the era of the VIth dynasty of the Old Kingdom, about 4,300 years ago," Egypt's antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass said.
"Thirty mummies and skeletons were discovered, including a wooden sarcophagus that has been sealed since the pharaonic era in the burial chamber at a depth of 11 metres (36 feet)."
Four other stone sarcophagi and another wooden one were also found in the tomb. Twenty of the mummies were stored in niches.
The mud-brick tomb commemorates a priest who was also a choir leader, Hawass said.
Another 11-metre shaft leading to the burial chamber, but built much later in around 640 BC, was also discovered.

29 Muslim Brothers arrested in Egypt

Judicial source says 29 arrested have been referred to state security court for prosecution.
CAIRO - Egyptian security forces on Tuesday arrested 29 members of the banned-but-tolerated Muslim Brotherhood, the country's main opposition group, in a widespread operation, a police official said.
A judicial source said those arrested had been referred to a state security court for prosecution.
The Brotherhood's website said arrests had been carried out in eight different parts of the country, including Cairo and the Nile delta.
Among those arrested was Mustapha El-Gheneimy, secretary general of the doctors' union in the northern town of Gharbiyyah.
Since December 27, when Israel launched a devastating military offensive against the Islamist group Hamas in the Gaza Strip, Egyptian police have arrested hundreds of Muslim Brothers. The group's site said 270 of them are still in jail.
The Brotherhood, founded in 1928, was officially banned in 1954 but is relatively tolerated. Using sympathisers running as independents, the group won one-fifth of seats in the 2005 parliamentary elections.

Egypt unveils ancient mummy

Egypt's chief archaeologist exposes mummy preserved inside limestone sarcophagus sealed 2,600 years ago.
SAQQARA, Egypt – Egypt's chief archaeologist has unveiled a completely preserved mummy inside a limestone sarcophagus sealed 2,600 years ago during pharaonic times.
The mummy was exposed for the first time Wednesday. It lies in a narrow shaft 36 feet below ground at the ancient necropolis of Saqqara outside of Cairo.
It is part of a burial chamber discovered three weeks ago that holds eight wooden and limestone sarcophagi, along with 22 other mummies from the 26th Dynasty — Egypt's last independent kingdom.
Laborers used crowbars to lift the sarcophagus' lid and exposed the linen-wrapped mummy inside.
Antiquities chief Zahi Hawass says the mummies are an important discovery and much of Saqqara has yet to be unearthed.

Egypt wants 3,000-year-old coffin back from US

Egypt seeks return of ornamented coffin illegally smuggled to America more than century ago.
CAIRO – Egypt will soon file an official request with US authorities to return a 3,000-year-old wooden coffin illegally smuggled out of the country more than a century ago, the country's top archaeologist said Sunday.
In a statement, Zahi Hawass said the nearly 5-foot-long coffin was taken from Egypt in 1884 after it was stolen from a tomb in Luxor, an ancient pharaonic capital in southern Egypt.
Hawass says the ornamented coffin belonged to Pharaoh Ames of the 21st Dynasty, which ruled over Egypt from 1081-931 B.C.
The coffin is currently in the hands of the customs authority in Miami, Florida, who confiscated it after it was shipped to the United States from Spain, added the statement.
US officials could not immediately be reached for comment.
Egypt has launched a drive to recover its antiquities taken abroad, including some residing in famous museums.

Cleopatra 'was part-African'

Experts believe remains of Cleopatra's sister - Princess Arsinoe - had part-African heritage.
LONDON - Cleopatra may have been part-African and not Greek Caucasian, according to a British TV documentary to be shown this month, its makers said Sunday.
It has long been thought that the former Queen of Egypt's roots were in Greece, but the discovery of what experts believe are her sister's remains has revealed that the siblings had a part-African heritage.
The BBC documentary "Cleopatra: Portrait of a Killer" to be shown on March 23 shows the analysis of the discovery of human remains in a tomb in Ephesus, Turkey.
Using state-of-the-art facial reconstruction and forensic techniques with anthropological and architectural analysis of the tomb, the experts are convinced that the skeleton is the remains of Cleopatra's sister, Princess Arsinoe, who was murdered on Cleopatra's orders.
Archaeologist Dr. Hilke Thuer from the Austrian Academy of Science, who led the team, said: "The results of the forensic examination and the fact that the facial reconstruction shows that Arsinoe had an African mother is a real sensation which leads to a new insight on Cleopatra's family and the relationship of the sisters Cleopatra and Arsinoe."

Israel treaty anniversary ignored in Egypt

Egypt plans to leave 30th anniversary of peace treaty with Israel almost entirely unmarked.
Israel is set to celebrate on Wednesday its first peace treaty with an Arab state but its partner Egypt plans to leave the 30th anniversary almost entirely unmarked.
"No commemoration is planned in Cairo" for Thursday's anniversary, foreign ministry spokesman Hossam Zaki said, in a sign of the cold peace that still reigns between the two neighbours amid widespread popular opposition to the treaty in Egypt.
Egypt's ambassador in Tel Aviv, Yasser Reda, will attend one of the celebrations in Israel.
Zaki said it would be an "appropriate opportunity to assess the past and to look to the future," allowing both sides to explore "how this peace can help stabilise a wider peace in the region."
There had been speculation that Egypt might stay away from the Israeli commemoration after last month's election brought right-winger Benjamin Netanyahu to the brink of power and he then named ultra-nationalist Avigdor Lieberman as his foreign minister-designate.
Last October, Lieberman told Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak he could "go to hell" if he didn't visit Israel. In nearly three decades in power, Mubarak has never once made an official visit to the Jewish state despite.
But after reassurances from aides of both Netanyahu and Lieberman, Egypt eventually confirmed its ambassador would attend.
"We could call it a schizophrenia that verges on the denial of reality," said Egyptian researcher Emad Gad.
"A cold peace has been implemented. In the upper echelons of society there is dialogue and business. Below, there's nothing, or worse."
Israeli tourists do visit Egypt but the vast majority head to the Red Sea resorts of the south Sinai. Those are to some degree insulated from the rest of the country.
Israel also vaunts its economic links with Egypt, including Qualified Industrial Zones that allow the two countries to export duty free and a disputed contract to supply Egyptian gas to Israel.
But although trade rose more than fourfold over the four years to 2008, it still totalled only 271 million dollars.
The director of the Al-Ahram Centre for Strategic Studies, Abdel Monem Said Aly, said public attitudes in Egypt had not always been so hostile to peace.
For the first few years after the landmark signing on March 26, 1979, which forever changed the Middle East balance of power, there was widespread acclaim for the treaty, Said Aly said.
"There was a lot of popular fervour. To everyone's surprise, three years of warm relations followed until the (1982) war in Lebanon," he said.
"To say that the peace is cold or warm is inaccurate; its temperature is closely linked to fluctuations in the region, primarily the Israel-Palestinian conflict."
Israel's deadly three-week onslaught on the Gaza Strip at the turn of the year triggered renewed hostility in Egypt and demands from the Muslim Brotherhood opposition for the government to open its border with Gaza in defiance of agreements with Israel.
Since the conflict, Egypt has proved its usefulness to Israel as an essential go-between in talks with the Palestinian factions, but domestic pressure prompted the government to publicly criticise Israel's conduct of the talks.
The Israeli foreign ministry acknowledged that "despite the solid foundations of Israeli-Egyptian relations, there are still many goals to be achieved

Egypt blames 'Islamist cell' for Cairo bombing

Egyptian security services believe tiny 'Islamist cell' carried out Cairo attack although no one claimed responsibility.
CAIRO - Egyptian security services believe a tiny 'Islamist cell' carried out a nail-bomb attack near a popular tourist site in Cairo that killed a French teenager, a government newspaper said on Tuesday.
The investigation into Sunday's bombing near the famed Khan al-Khalili bazaar is focusing on an isolated group of three or four people, Al-Ahram newspaper reported.
Egyptian police said they have arrested three suspects and were questioning about 15 witnesses but as yet no-one has claimed responsibility for the attack, the first targeting foreigners in Egypt since 2006.
Al-Ahram said the home-made bomb weighed up to 1.5 kilogrammes (more than three pounds), contained nails and metal fragments and an explosive material similar to the kind used in fireworks.

Sudanese president Bashir flouts war crimes indictment with visit to Egypt

The Sudanese president, Omar al-Bashir, arrived in Egypt today in a show of contempt towards the international criminal court, which is seeking his arrest for war crimes in Darfur.
Bashir was met at the airport in Cairo by the Egyptian president, Hosni Mubarak, for what was expected to be a one-day visit, his second trip outside Sudan since his arrest warrant was issued on 4 March. Egypt is a neighbour and close ally of Sudan, and has been one of the most vocal opponents of the court decision.
On Monday, Bashir made a brief visit across the border to Eritrea, the tiny Red Sea state that remains diplomatically isolated due to its repressive regime.
While the aim of the visits was to further underline Bashir's defiance of the international community – he immediately expelled 13 foreign aid agencies from Darfur when the warrant was announced – they carried little risk of arrest. Neither Egypt nor Eritrea has ratified the Rome statute of the ICC, which has no police force and requires member states to make arrests on its behalf.
The first real test of Bashir's resolve will be whether he attends the Arab summit on Sunday in Qatar, which would require him to cross international airspace. Immediately after the ICC warrant was issued, Sudan's government said Bashir would attend.
However, senior Sudanese officials and Islamic scholars have been urging him not to travel to Doha, saying it carried too much risk, even though among Arab states only Jordan is an ICC member. Qatar's prime minister, Sheikh Hamad Bin Jassem al-Thani, who on Tuesday visited the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, said that while he had come under international pressure not to receive Bashir, an invitation had been extended.
"We respect international law and we respect the attendance of President al-Bashir and welcome him. It is a purely Sudanese decision," he said.
Bashir is accused of orchestrating the counter-insurgency campaign in Darfur, which mainly targeted non-Arab civilians deemed supportive of rebel groups that challenged the government in 2003. More than 200,000 people have died during the conflict, mostly through starvation and disease.
After being formally accused of war crimes by the ICC prosecutor in July, Bashir embarked on a charm offensive to win support from neighbours and countries in the wider region. Both the Arab League and African Union oppose the arrest warrant, arguing it may jeopardise peace efforts in Darfur.
The UN security council can suspend the ICC indictment, a position favoured by Russia and China, both strong trade partners of Sudan. But the remaining three permanent council members, Britain, France and the US, have indicated they will block any such move. The trio argue that Bashir has shown little appetite for ending the conflict peacefully, and that it would send out the wrong message about ending impunity.
source guardian

Arab unity in the shadows of empire

In the midst of huge strategic and economic upheavals, the leaders of the Arab world appear divided.
Immersed in domestic disputes and bilateral bickering, Arab nations are facing stark choices.
Emerging from a history of colonial domination, the Arab world is now influenced by competing global and regional powers.
The failure of George Bush's policies to transform the greater Middle East through military force has left new threats and new opportunities for this energy rich, conflict-ridden region.
In the new world order, we examine the possibilities of Arabs engaging with the world's superpowers on an equal footing.
But with countries as diverse as Egypt and the Comoros Islands, is the era of pan-Arabism an outdated concept?
On the eve of the Arab League Summit in Doha, Empire asks the questions that have divided generations: How can Arabs improve their poor standing in the world and at the same time, deal collectively with the dramatic regional and global challenges engulfing their countries?
Source:Al Jazeera

Defiant Bashir travels to Cairo

Omar al-Bashir, the Sudanese president, has met his Egyptian counterpart in Cairo in a show of defiance after the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued an arrest warrant on accusations of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
Al-Bashir held talks with Hosni Mubarak and several other senior Egyptian political leaders on Wednesday at Cairo airport.
Ahmed Abul Gheit, Egypt's foreign minister, said the presidents discussed the ICC's arrest warrant for al-Bashir.
"There is an Egyptian, Arab and African stance that does not accept the court's manner in dealing with the Sudanese president," Abul Gheit told reporters after the meeting.
Al-Bashir later caught a return flight to Khartoum, the Sudanese capital.
He had risked arrest by leaving Sudan for his meeting with Mubarak, but Egypt, which has close ties with Khartoum, has called on the UN Security Council to suspend the ICC warrant.
Al-Bashir's visit to Cairo is his second foreign trip since the ICC indictment. He visited Eritrea on Monday.
Qatari invitation
Sudan's government said shortly after the ICC decision on March 4 that al-Bashir would defy the arrest warrant by travelling to an Arab summit in the Qatari capital, Doha, on March 27.
Sheikh Hamad bin Jassem Al Thani, the prime minister of Qatar, travelled to Sudan on Tuesday in an attempt to convince al-Bashir to attend the summit where they will focus on the situation in Darfur.
The Qatari prime minster said during his visit that Doha had been put under pressure by several parties to abstain from receiving al-Bashir.
"Doha would not acquiesce to such pressure while al-Bashir is absolutely free to take the appropriate decision about attending the Arab summit," the Qatari prime minister said.

But a series of Sudanese officials have released statements raising questions over the wisdom of the trip, prompting speculation they were preparing to send another representative instead.
Sudanese Islamic scholars have advised al-Bashir not to travel to the Arab League summit.
A trip to Qatar is viewed as more risky for al-Bashir than a visit to Egypt or Eritrea because it involves travelling through international airspace.
Qatar is not a member of the ICC and would have no legal obligation to arrest al-Bashir. Amr Mussa, the Arab League secretary-general, said last week that the 22-nation group would not act on the arrest warrant.
The Arab League and African Union, backed by China and Russia, have called on the UN Security Council to use its power to suspend the ICC indictment.
The United States, UK and France have said they see no point in halting al-Bashir's prosecution.
Aid worker killed
On Monday, a Sudanese relief worker was shot and killed in Darfur, a relief official said.
Adam Khater, manager of the Canadian-based Fellowship for African Relief, was shot dead in the western Darfur town of Kongo Haraza, Mark Simmons, the organisation's country director said.
"He was ambushed on Saturday by men who wanted his Thuraya satellite telephone," Simmons said.
"They came to his home on Monday evening to take the phone, but it wasn't there. The armed men then opened fire on him."
Aid workers have experienced increased hostility in Darfur after al-Bashir reacted to the ICC warrant, by expelling 13 international aid agencies from Darfur earlier this month.

Egypt's Ahly Clash With Barcelona And Tottenham

African champions Al Ahly of Egypt will feature in an invitational tournament in England in July that will involve Barcelona and Tottenham Hotspur. Samm Audu AuduAhly president, Hassan Hamdi, said he has approved the club's participation at an invitational tournament that will also feature Glasgow Rangers.
The tournament will be staged between July 24 and 26.
This could be a chance for Ahly to avenge a 4-0 defeat they suffered at the hands of Barcelona in April 2007 in a game to mark the Egyptian club's centennial celebrations.
Samm Audu,

Nubia: Lost civilisation of Egypt

The Sun Temple at Abu Simbel is a popular tourist attraction which has featured in well-known films like Death on the Nile and The Mummy Returns but had it been left where Ramses II built it 15 centuries ago, it would now be under water.
Fifty years ago this year Egypt and Sudan asked for international help to save ancient sites threatened by the construction of the Aswan High Dam.
"It was going to submerge all the area of Nubia - monuments, people, the landscape, everything," says Costanza de Simone from the United Nations' culture agency, Unesco.
"So the two governments launched an appeal to Unesco.
"The work brought people from all over the world into Nubia, people with different backgrounds: archaeologists, engineers and geologists. They had to invent new methods and techniques.
"It changed the vision of how to preserve cultural heritage."
Over two decades the race to carry out large-scale excavations uncovered thousands of artefacts and huge monuments were carefully cut into blocks and dismantled before being rebuilt in new locations.
The most famous are the temples of Abu Simbel and Philae.
"The Nubia campaign was very important," says the head of the Egyptian supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass.
"It was the first time you saw such international cooperation.
"Egypt sent the message that our monuments don't just belong to Egypt - they belong to everyone - and that is why so many different countries participated."
Uprooted people
Experts who worked on the salvage projects are celebrating the anniversary of the campaign with events at the Nubia Museum in Aswan this week.
It was built after they finished work to display their finds and explain the distinct history of the Nubian people.
Tens of thousands of Nubians were moved from their ancestral homeland along the Nile - in southern Egypt and northern Sudan - because of the dam.
Many were resettled in the desert where they were unable to practise agriculture and young people left in search of work. Uprooted, they began to lose Nubian languages and customs.
"The Nubia Museum was a gift for those who sacrificed their homeland," says the director, Osama Abdul Waruth, who is Nubian himself.
"Nubian culture is one of the oldest and richest in Africa and dates back before Egyptian civilisation although this later overtook it.
"The original environment of the Nubian is to be on the shore of the Nile. It is the source of life itself - but also our myths and traditions.
"In the desert, Nubians are kept away from all their intangible heritage connected to the Nile. The living culture will disappear soon if they do not go back home."
Dreaming of home
Nubians have long been fighting to return to land by Lake Nasser, close to their original villages. It is widely believed that economic and security concerns have kept them away.
However there have been recent signs the authorities' attitudes could be changing.
The governor of Aswan has announced plans to build almost 5,000 new Nubian homes at a site chosen by community elders.
Abdallah Muhammad Abdul Fattah was a child when his family left its village in 1964.
"I still remember it with sorrow with a broken heart - you can imagine what is your feeling when you are prevented from going to your native land," he says.
"When I dream, I never dream in my village now. All my dreams are in our old Nubian one."
At a gathering to lay the cornerstone for the new development, Mr Abdul Fattah smiled broadly as Nubian children sang of the beauty of Aswan.
"All the Nubians are very happy because they are about to return to their motherland."
By Yolande Knell
BBC News, Aswan


Modern Cairo is a dazzling varied metropolis that hums with activity all year round. A city of contrasts, it is a place where donkey carts jockey with Mercedes along the crowded streets, where a thousand minarets adorn the skyline alongside a sea of skyscrapers.
Each of the Pagan, Christian and Muslim civilisations which Cairo has hosted has left its imprint in the form of customs, celebrations, monuments and artifacts. Monuments such as the Pyramids, Sphinx, lively bazaars, famous Islamic Mosques and ancient Coptic Churches open a window of a glorious past.
A centre of cultural, social, intellectual, economic and political activity, Cairo also holds a diversity of world famous hotel chains, glittering nightclubs, casinos and discos.
Cairo is a city that never sleeps, being the cultural and commercial centre of the Arab world and the largest in Africa and the Middle East .
Egypt occupies the Northern Eastern region of Africa and covers a total area of 1,001,400 sq. km. Its population of 74 million utilises only 4% of the total land, while the rest is desert. The very existence of the country depends on the slender ribbon of the Nile , the world's second longest river.
Cairo is Egypt 's capital, where East meets West, combining the exoticism of one and the sophistication of the other, is the largest city in Africa and the heart of the Arab world. Cairo strikes one as a land of vivid contrasts. Its ancient civilisation, unique history and culture blend harmoniously with the modern refinements of the 20th century.
The Egyptian Museum:
The Egyptian Museum is the most important depository of Egyptian antiquities anywhere in the world. It features artifacts from the Pharaonic and Greco-Roman periods, including the celebrated mummies of ancient Egypt 's kings and Tutankhamon's treasures.
The Giza Pyramids & Sphinx:
The Pyramids of Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus were reckoned by the Greeks to be one of the seven wonders of the world. A single pyramid is built with 2,300,000 blocks, each weighing an average of two and a half tonnes. In the face of such immensity, one cannot help but feel the wonder and awe that so many writers and artists have sought to convey over the centuries. The Cheops Pyramid is more interesting, because its interior burial chambers are open for inspection by the public.
Not far from the pyramids is the Great Sphinx of Giza, which dates from the time of Chephren (2620 BC). Hewn from natural yellowish limestone and standing 65 feet-high and 187 feet-long, this unforgettable statue combines, the head of a Pharaoh with a lion's body.
The Citadel & Khan El Khalili:
Situated on the spur of Muqattam Hills, the Citadel dominates Cairo 's skyline, and was the dense centre of the city and Egypt for almost 700 years. Its construction was initiated in 1776 by Saladin and completed by Mohamed Ali. Mameluke sultans and Turkish governors later made it their residence, building places and mosques within the Citadel walls.
Facing the Citadel is the Mosque of Sultan Hassan, built between 1356 and 1363 and perhaps the most majestic monument of Arab architecture in Egypt .
The tour also includes a visit to Khan El Khalili, a famous Cairo bazaar dating back to the late 14th century.
Old Cairo:
The Coptic Museum , and Ben Ezra Synagogue:
Coptic Museum : The famous Coptic museum is built on the site of the Roman fortress of Babylon , constructed about 30 BC under Augustus and rebuilt in the time of Trajan. Inside the fortress are several Coptic churches and the collection of Coptic art in the world.
Ben Ezra Synagogue: The Ben Ezra Synagogue stands in a pleasant shady garden in the centre of Cairo . Its long existence is attested to by the accounts of many travellers who visited it over the centuries, including Benjamin of Tudela in the 13th century, who records that he saw the Torah of Ezra- the Scribe there. The first Jewish synagogue was destroyed when the Romans occupied Egypt and was later rebuilt by Abraham Ben Ezra, the chief rabbi of Jerusalem . It contains a number of artifacts, including a Torah on gazelle skin dating from the 5th century BC, a drawing of a seven-branched candelabra on deer skin, and the manuscript known as the “Atlas of Moses”.
Memphis and Sakkara:
Memphis : Memphis served as the capital of Upper and Lower Egypt some 5,000 years ago during the First Dynasty. Menes, the first pharaoh of this dynasty, built a great, white-walled palace and the Temple of Ptah there.
Sakkara: One of the most exciting historical and archaeological areas in all of Egypt is Sakkara, situated about 12 miles southwest of Cairo . The site is dominated by the famous step pyramid of King Zoser. It was the first pyramid built in ancient Egypt , preceding those at Giza by many centuries, and is the work of the famous Pharaonic architect, Imhotep.
The Manial Palace, the Nilometre & the Papyrus Institute:
Manial Palace : A residence of the crown prince Mohamed Ali of the royal family, contains a collection of Ottoman period exhibits and artifacts of the former royal family.
Nilometre: It dates from 861, a stone-lined pit that descends well below the level of the Nile . In the centre of the pit is a column with 16 cubit markings (a cubit is equal to about 21 inches).
When the Nile water rose during floods' time, the early Egyptians could tell by the water's highest point on the column what the level of the Nile would be that year.
Papyrus Institute: At the Papyrus Institute workers replicate the process used by ancient Egyptians to produce writing material from the papyrus plant.
The Islamic Museum, El Seheimy House & Ibn Tulun Mosque:
Islamic Museum: Is a noted depository of Islamic art from Egypt , Turkey and Persia dating from the 7th to 19th centuries. It was founded in El Hakim Mosque in 1880 and moved to its present location in 1903.
El Seheimy House:
El Seheimy House: Is a charming example of a typical Cairo home during the 16th and 17th centuries. Formerly a merchant's house, it includes a pleasant interior courtyard with trees, flowers, a well, and a flour mill.
Ibn Tulun Mosque:
Ibn Tulun Mosque: Completed in 879, Ibn Tulun Mosque covers 8.5 acres of land and is designed in the classical courtyard style. It is well-known for its pointed arches, beautifully carved stucco, and Koranic inscription in sycamore wood.
The Gates, the Anderson Museum & the City of the Dead:
The Gates: Its surrounding is what we call now the Old Cairo. The Fatimite walls were built by Badr El Gamali between 1087 and 1092. Their famous East and West gates, Bab El Nasr (Gate of Victory) on the East, and Bab El Fotouh (Gate of Conquests) on the West, are of special interest. The mechanism used to open and close Bab El Nasr was used 100 years earlier in Egypt than its first appearance in Europe . Inscribed on the walls are the names of French officers who came to Egypt with Napoleon Bonaparte's expedition.
The Anderson Museum : This museum is actually a combination of two different styles. The 18th century houses were joined together and finished by Major Gayer-Anderson, an Englishman. It is one of the best preserved and furnished houses of historic Cairo and gives a good idea of the degree of comfort and luxury enjoyed by wealthy Cairenes 200 years ago. Of particular interest is the large reception room and balcony, which is enclosed with a wooden Mashrabiyah screen that allowed the ladies of the harem to look down on male visitors and their festivities.
City of the Dead: The City of the Dead is Cairo 's sprawling northern cemetery where the Mameluke sultans built their fine tombs, surrounding these with thousands of mausoleums and burial plots. Little houses were built as places of visitation, enclosing or adjoining family plots.
Sound & Light Show at the Pyramids:
Guests enjoy a fabulous 45 minute show at the feet of the Pyramids of Giza, held every evening. English speaking shows are on everyday except Sunday. French speaking shows are everyday except Thursday and Saturday. German speaking shows are only on Sunday and Wednesday. Italian speaking shows are on Tuesday and Saturday. Spanish speaking shows are on Monday and Saturday. Arabic and Japanese speaking shows are on Thursday. Russian speaking show is only on Saturday.
Dinner & Oriental Show:
Guests can enjoy a typical Egyptian dinner at a big tent near the Pyramids in Giza or aboard a riverboat on the Nile . The evening includes a spectacular Egyptian show with belly dancers and other folkloric performers.
Church of Abu Serga:
The basilical Church of Abu Serga was constructed above the cave in which the Holy Family took refuge.
El Mo'alaqa Church:
Built in the fifth century over the Southern gate of Fort of Babylon, the basilical style church of El Mo'alaqa is rich in antiquities from the early Christian era.
Church of the Virgin:
The eighth century church contains a number of valuable icons.
Church of St. Barbara:
Completed in the fifth century and rebuilt in the 10th century, the Church of St. Barbara is still surrounded by its original wooden portal.
Church of Mar Guirguis:
The basilical style church was built over the ruins on an older church and includes a rare hall that dates back to the 13th century.
St. Mark's Cathedral:
Recently built in the Abbasia area, St. Mark's Cathedral is the largest church in Africa . The remains of St. Mark, the first apostle to spread Christianity in Egypt , have been transferred to the cathedral.
Agricultural Museum:
Wizaret El Ziraa St. , Dokki. Open: 9.00 am - 2.00 pm. Closed: Monday.
Beit El Seheimy
Darb El Asfour near Qaloun Mosque, Al Azhar. Open: 9:00 am - 4.00 pm. Closed: Friday. Noon - 1.00 pm.
Beit El Kereitliya (Gayer Anderson House)
Ahmed Ibn Tulun Square . Open: 8.00 am - 4.00 pm.
Beit El Umma
(The House of Saad Zaghloul)
2, Saad Zaghloul St. , Falaki. Open: 9.00 am - 3.00 pm.
Salah Salem St. Open 9.00 am - 5.00 pm.
Coptic Museum
Mar Guirguis St. , Old Cairo . Open: 9.00 am - 4.00 pm.
Dr. Ragab's Papyrus Institute
Nile Street , (near Yacht Club). Open 9.00 am - 7.00 pm.
Egyptian Civilisation Museum
Tahrir Square . Open: 9.00 am - 2:00 pm , 4.00 - 5.00 pm.
Entomological Society Museum
14, Ramsis St. Open: 9.00 am - 1.00 pm; Wed: 6.00 - 9.00 pm. Closed: Saturday, Sunday & Monday.
Ethnological Museum
109, Kasr El Aini St , Open: Sunday, Tuesday & Thursday: 9.00 am - 2.00 pm: Saturday, Monday & Wednesday: 9.00 am - 4.00 pm. Closed: Friday
Geological Museum
Corniche El Nile, Maadi, Athar El Nabi, Old Cairo . Open from 9.00 am.- 1.00 pm.
Abdin Palace Museum
Abdin Palace : Open 9.00 am - 3.00 pm.
Mahmoud Khalil Museum
El Giza St. , Giza . Open 10.00 am - 3.00 pm.
Mohamed Ali Palace & Museum
The Citadel: Open 9.00 am - 5.00 pm. Closed: Tuesday
Manial Palace Museum
Roda Island . Open 9.00 am - 3.00 pm.
Military Museum
The Citadel. Open: 9.00 am - 5.00 pm. Closed: Tuesday.
Mokhtar Museum
Opera House. Open 9.00 am - 3.00 pm. Fri. 9.00 am - 1.00 pm.
Musaferkhana Palace
El Hussein Mosque, Darb El Tablawi, Gamalia. Open 9.00 am - 2.00 pm. Closed: Friday.
Islamic Ceramic Museum
Amr Ibrahim Palace - Zamalek. Open: 9.00 am - 5.00 pm.
Museum of Islamic Art
Ahmed Maher Sq., Port Said St. , Bab El Khalk. Open: 9.00 am - 4.00 pm. Friday 9.00 am - 12.00 pm.
Museum of Modern Art
18, Ismail Abul Fetouh St. , Dokki. Open: 9.00 am - 1.30 pm. Fri: 9.00 am - 11.30 pm.
Gezirah Exhibition Grounds. Open: 7.00 am - 8.00 pm. Closed; Friday.
Police Museum
The Citadel. Open: 9.00 am - 5.00 pm.
Post Office Museum
The Post Office, Ataba Sq. Open: 10.00 am - 1.00 pm. Closed; Friday.
Railway Museum
The Railway Station, Ramsis. Open: 9.00 am - 2.00 pm. Closed; Monday.
Royal Carriages Museum
82, 26th of July St. , Boulak. Open: 9.00 am - 4.00 pm.
Sakakini Palace
Ghamra. Open: 9.00 am - 2.00 pm.
Solar Boat Museum
The Great Pyramid of Cheops. Open: 9.00 am - 5.00 pm.
The Nilometre & Monasterly Palace
Roda Island . Open: 9.00 am - 2.00 pm. Closed: Friday & Saturday
Wax Museum
Ain Helwan Station, Helwan. Open: 9.00 am - 5.00 pm. Closed: Friday.
Wikalet El Ghuri
3, El Sheikh Mohamed Abdou, Al Azhar.
Beit Gamal Eddin El Dahabi
Hosh El Kadem St. , off El Ghuriya. The house of Gamal Eddin El Dahabi is a fine example of early 17th century Arab homes.
Beit El Sennari
Haret Monge, off Port Said St. Open: 9.00 am - 1.30 pm.
Sultan Hassan School & Mosque
By the Citadel. Open: 5.00 pm - 7.00 p