Abdel-Rahman al-Raf'ee

Abdel Rahman al-Raf'ee is known as the historian of modern Egypt. His writings have been highly influential on modern Egyptian historical thought. Although he was also a prominent lawyer, member of the Parliament and minister, al-Raf'ee was best known as a historian.
Birth and Education :
Born in Cairo on February 8, 1889, he received his primary and secondary education mostly in Alexandria. In 1908, he graduated from the Faculty of Law. As a student of law, he used to call frequently on al-Liwaa newspaper, where he came in contact with nationalist leader Mustafa Kamel.
Al-Raf'ee worked as a lawyer for a short time, but soon abandoned the profession for journalism. He joined al-Liwaa newspaper as an editor,in association with nationalist leader Mohammad Fareed who succeeded Mustafa Kamel as Editor-in-Chief.
He cooperated with the National Party's young members in establishing night schools, and providing free education to the poor and working class.
• In 1911, he accompanied Muhammad Fareed in a European tour.
• In 1915, he was detained for one year on account of his political memoirs, which were found by the police.
• In 1919, he joined a number of nationalists in a campaign to popularise agricultural trade unions. He was also involved in the 1919 Revolution.
• In 1924, he was elected a member of the Parliament representing the opposition National Party, and lost his parliamentary seat in 1926.
• In 1932, he was appointed Secretary to the National Party.
• In 1949, he was appointed Minister of Supply.
• He warmly welcomed and supported the July 23,1952 Revolution.
• He was appointed Head of the Egyptian Bar Association in 1954.
• In 1958, he was re-elected member of the Supreme Council of Arts, Letters and Social Sciences. • He was awarded the State Prize of Merit for Social Sciences in 1961.
Al-Raf'ee's writings covered almost all stages of Egypt's modern history as follows:
• History of the National Movement and Evolution of the Governmental System in Egypt (two volumes).
• The Age of Mohammad Ali.
• The Age of Ismail (two volumes).
• Orabi Revolution and British Occupation.
• Egypt and Sudan during the Early Years of Occupation.
• Mustafa Kamel: Motive Force of National Movement.
• Mohammad Fareed: A Symbol of Sacrifice.
• The 1919 Revolution (two volumes).
• In the Wake of the Egyptian Revolution (three volumes).
• Preludes to the July 23, 1952 Revolution.
• The July 23, 1952 Revolution: Egypt's National History in Seven Years.
• Revolutionary Leader: Ahmad Orabi.
• Gamal Eddin al-Afghani.
• Egypt's Struggle in Modern Times.
• My Diary (1889 - 1951).
• Fourteen Years in Parliament.
• Poets of Patriotism in Egypt.
• Analysis of the 1936 Treaty.
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