Ingenious Location

On April 25, 1982, President Mubarak raised high the Egyptian flag over Sinai after Egypt restored it from the Israeli occupier. This was the last scene in a long series of Egyptian-Israeli conflict which ended with restoring the Egyptian lands after a sweeping victory of the Egyptian policy and the military. Few days after 1967 defeat, steadfastness stage began and it lasted till September 1968. This stage witnessed Ras el-Esh battles and the destruction of Eilat. Then the stage of attrition war began which lasted till March 1969 where the Egyptian forces made acts of sabotage to prevent the enemies' forces from strengthening their defenses along the eastern bank of the Suez Canal.
September 1968 witnessed the famous guns' battle where our forces used to shell the enemies' forces along the eastern bank of the Suez Canal. Confrontations were mounting day after day and the Israeli Air Forces intervened effectively after the Egyptian artillery continued its shelling of the Israeli outposts. At the end of 1968, our war planes began to limit Israel's air activities along the frontline.
In March 1969, combats developed and the rounds of crossing to the eastern bank of the canal increased. Our forces launched a long-term war against the Israeli forces to exhaust its resources after the losses in their equipment and individuals increased.
Heroism scenes continued till 1973 which was crowned with 1973 October War where more than 220 war planes crossed the Suez Canal at 2 PM and targeted radar stations, air defense batteries, armors, tanks, artillery, the strongholds of Barlif Line, oil refineries and ammunition stores. At the same time, the Egyptian artillery turned the eastern coast of the Suez Canal into hell where 10,500 missiles fell on the Israeli outposts in the first minute of the start of the attack by a ratio of 175 missiles per second.
Ground troops began to storm into the Suez Canal, using more than 1000 rubber boats. 8000 soldiers crossed the eastern bank of the Suez Canal and began to jump over the high dusty barrier. By so doing, Egypt terminated the so-called invincible army of Israel given that it seized the eastern bank of the Suez Canal within few hours.
The most important result of the war is Egypt's full sovereignty over Suez Canal and the return of navigation in the canal in June 1975. The liberation war led to: - The change of military strategies all over the world and it had an effect on the future of many weapons and equipment. - October war restored the confidence of the Egyptian fighter and the army.- It realized the comprehensive Arab unity in the full sense of the word. - It made the Arabs an international power which enjoys weight on the international arena.- The steadfastness of the Egyptian will and the collapse of the Israeli legendary.
The war also paved the way before Camp David Agreement in September 1978 based on the historical visit of late President Sadat to Jerusalem in November 1977.
Political negotiations
The political negotiations were the second stage after liberating the land, as the USA and the member states in the UN Security Council intervened and released decree no. 338 which stipalated on stopping all war actions starting from October, 22, 1973.
Egypt accepted the decree and executed it starting from the same day, but the Israeli forces broke the ceasefire, so the Security Council released another decree on October 23, which obliged all the parties to carry out the ceasefire. After executing the decree, Israel realized that it lost the war and that the Egyptian army was steadfast to the locations snatched from the Israelis hands.
Soon after, Israel accepted to hold political negotiations to make reconciliation, so the battles stopped on October 28, 1973 when the international emergency forces arrived in Sinai which finally gained its liberation by hardly achieving peace.
Following are the agreements and negotiations for achieving peace:
- Kilo 101 talks (October and November, 1973)
- First reconciliation talks (January, 1974) and the second (September 1975)
- The initiative of the late President Anwar Al-Sadat of visiting Jerusalem (November, 1977)
- Camp David Conference (September 18, 1978)
- Peace agreement (March 26, 1979)
Finally, the Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement led to a complete Israeli withdrawal from Sinai, and returning the Egyptian sovereignty on it.
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